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A new study tries to unpick what makes people happy and sad. Mental illness is a better predictor of misery than poverty is.

The Economist; 2017

KEEPING voters happy is the lifeblood of any ambitious politician’s career. So they may want to pay attention to a report, released to mark “World Happiness Day” on March 20th, from the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, a UN body, and the Ernesto Illy Foundation, a non-profit. In addition to the usual rankings of countries from the happiest (Norway, for the usual reasons) to the least (Central African Republic, close to a failed state), the study also tries to unpick what makes people gleeful and—more unusually—what makes them miserable. Reducing suffering, the authors argue, may be more important than boosting pleasure, because improving the life of an already-happy person probably yields a smaller gain in total welfare than freeing someone from misery does. They analysed large-scale surveys from four countries—Britain, Australia, America, Indonesia—to identify which factors are most closely associated with the population of the least happy decile of the sample.

Plné znění článku na stránkách The Economist ZDE


Principles of Substance Abuse Prevention for Early Childhood-A Research Based Guide
NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse, USA); 2016

Substance abuse and addiction are preventable disorders that interfere with normal healthy functioning, contributing to physical and behavioral health problems, injuries, lost income and productivity, and family dysfunction. While substance use generally begins during the adolescent years, there are known biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors that contribute to the risk that begin accumulating as early as the prenatal period. This creates opportunities to intervene very early in an individual’s life and thereby prevent substance use disorders—and, along with them, a range of other related behavioral problems—long before they would normally manifest themselves...

Plné znění článku na stránkách NIDA ZDE


Cyberbullying rarely occurs in isolation, research finds

ScienceDaily, March 7, 2017

Cyberbullying doesn’t create large numbers of new victims, say researchers. Most bullying is face-to-face – with cyberbullying used as a modern tool to supplement traditional forms. A new study has found that 29% of UK teenagers reported being bullied, but only 1% were victims of cyberbullying alone. Therefore, say authors of a new report, bullying intervention strategies should focus on traditional bullying as well as cyberbullying...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE


Tips for Talking and What to Say to Prevent Medicine Abuse

Drugfree.org - Talk with Your Kids

Kids who learn about the dangers of drug use early and often are much less likely to develop addiction than those who do not receive these critical messages at home. However, research shows these conversations tend not to include the topic of medicine abuse. According to a national study, only 14 percent of teens indicated that during the last conversation they had with their parents regarding substance use, the misuse or abuse of any type of prescription drug was discussed...

Plné znění článku + Parent Talk Kit ke stažení na stránkách Drugfree.org ZDE


Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity.

ScienceDaily, 25 April 2017

Source: Society for Research in Child Development
Emotional eating is not uncommon in children and adolescents, but why youth eat emotionally has been unclear. Now a new longitudinal study from Norway has found that school-age children whose parents fed them more to soothe their negative feelings were more likely to eat emotionally later on. The reverse was also found to be the case, with parents of children who were more easily soothed by food being more likely to feed them for emotional reasons...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE


Brain differences in ADHD

ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 February 2017

Source: Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
Summary: Largest imaging study of ADHD to date identifies differences in five regions of the brain, with greatest differences seen in children rather than adults.

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE


Link Between Alcohol Marketing and Youth Drinking Grows Stronger

Drugfree.org by Celia Vimont, January 19th, 2017

A new review of studies from around the world finds young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking.The researchers reviewed 12 studies involving a total of more than 35,000 participants from Europe, Asia and North America. All 12 found evidence of a positive association between level of marketing exposure and level of youth alcohol consumption...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Drugfree.org ZDE


Research on Substance Abuse and Bullying Yields Some Surprising Findings

Drugfree.org by Celia Vimont, October 13th, 2016

Researchers looking at the relationship between bullying and substance use in teens are coming up with some surprising findings. This is especially true in the area of bullying victimization and substance use, according to Amanda Nickerson, PhD, Professor and Director of the Alberti Center for Bullying Abuse Prevention, Graduate School of Education at the University of Buffalo in New York.
“A fair amount of research has found higher rates of substance use among bullying perpetrators,” says Dr. Nickerson, who spoke about bullying and substance use at the recent National Prevention Network annual research conference. “Substance use may be one part of a cluster of problem behaviors, as well as aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, among bullying perpetrators.”...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Drugfree.org ZDE


"Everyone’s not doing it" message offers hope for prevention
Drug and Alcohol Findings; 28 June 2016

Science is littered with shining discoveries which became tarnished as accumulating data forced a reappraisal. In substance misuse, ‘normative education’ retains some of its shine, but what seemed the great hope for school- and college-based prevention now seems a tactic of limited application and inconsistent impact. The approach relies on the common (but perhaps at not as common as believed below) overestimation by pupils and students of how many of their peers use substances and how much they use, and/or a similar overestimation of the acceptability of substance use among their peers. Corrective survey data is expected to reduce substance use because it no longer seems ‘normal’ and ‘what everyone my age does’. For more on the thinking and research behind this strategy, see this presentation from John McAlaney of the University of Bradford...
Plné znění článku na stánkách Findings.org.uk  ZDE


Prevention of addictive behaviours

EMCDDA, Lisbon, September 2015

This publication is an update of Prevention of substance abuse, published in 2007. Like the previous analysis, it is a translation of a German study that presents a state-of-the-art review of prevention science. Although originally targeted at the German audience, the evidence base addressed is global in its scope. The review is broad in its considerations, covering not only the main topic of drug abuse but also alcohol and tobacco, as well as behavioural addictions, such as gambling.

Plné znění publikace na stránkách EMCDDA ZDE


Physical activity, sadness, and suicidality in bullied US adolescents
Medical news today; Published: Friday 18 September 2015
A study to be published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) reports that exercise for 4 or more days per week is associated with an approximate 23% reduction in both suicidal ideation and attempt in bullied adolescents in the U.S.
Across the U.S., nearly 20% of students report being bullied on school property. Bullying is associated with academic struggle, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and self-harm. Exercise has been widely reported to have robust positive effects on mental health including reduction in depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.
Using data from a nationally representative sample of youth who participated in the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (CDC), a group of researchers led by Dr. Jeremy Sibold of the University of Vermont, examined the relationship between exercise frequency, sadness, and suicidal ideation and attempt in 13,583 U.S. adolescents in grades 9-12. The authors hypothesized that exercise frequency would be inversely related to sadness and suicidality and that these benefits would extend to bullying victims...
Více na www.medicalnewstoday.com


Online Anti-Drinking Aids May Not Help Over Long Term
HealthDay News, Aug. 3, 2015, by Steven Reinberg
Beefing up electronic programs with human help might make them more effective, expert says.
Trying to curb alcohol use on your own with web-based or CD programs may not be very effective, a new study reports.
The study found these programs could reduce drinking slightly among adults and college students. But they appeared to be ineffective for reducing binge drinking and the negative social aspects linked with alcohol misuse.
The evidence, researchers said, shows that intense treatment may be needed to reduce drinking levels to recommended limits...

Plné znění článku na http://consumer.healthday.com


Parents' rules about underage drinking: A qualitative study of why parents let teens drink

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), Prevention Research Center (Bettina Friese, Ph.D., Joel W. Grube, Ph.D., Roland S. Moore, Ph.D., and Vanessa K. Jennings, B.A.) 

Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink...

Více na www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov


Why Do Teens Act This Way?

By Join Together Staff

Have ever looked at your teenager and wondered: “Why does my teen do that?”
From mood swings to risk taking, “normal teenage behavior” can appear to be anything-but-normal to parents and other bystanders. However, new research reveals that patterns of brain development during these formative years play a significant role in shaping your teen’s personality and actions.
Scientists are beginning to learn that it takes a brain about 25 years to fully develop, and that a huge burst of development happens during adolescence...

Článek + video na stránkách Drugfree.org


What Role Does Sport/Physical Acitivity Play in Preventing Substance Use?

By Chudley Werch, October 1st, 2014

The prevailing thought is that by having youth play sports and engage in physical activities, they are protected against using alcohol and drugs.  Sports and physical activities are critical to developing healthy bodies and minds, and are associated with many other benefits including school success and the development of positive self-esteem.
However, research paints a more complex picture of the connection between sports and exercise and youth substance use.  Below is a description of recent research on the associations between youth sports/physical activity and substance use, and studies evaluating the effects of interventions targeting physical activity/sports for preventing substance use among youth...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Preventionpluswellness.com 


Large Study Shows Substance Abuse Rates Higher in Teenagers With ADHD

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

A new study published online in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry revealed a significantly higher prevalence of substance abuse and cigarette use by adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) histories than in those without ADHD. Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and six other health centers across the United States also found that, contrary to previous findings, current medications for ADHD do not counter the risk for substance abuse and substance use disorder (SUD) among teenagers...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Sciencedaily.com


Influence of latent Toxoplasma infection on human personality, physiology and morphology: pros and cons of the Toxoplasma–human model in studying the manipulation hypothesis.

Prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Flegr, CSc.

"The parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects about one-third of the population of developed countries. The life-long presence of dormant stages of this parasite in the brain and muscular tissues of infected humans is usually considered asymptomatic from the clinical point of view. In the past 20 years, research performed mostly on military personnel, university students, pregnant women and blood donors has shown that this ‘asymptomatic’ disease has a large influence on various aspects of human life...."

Plné znění na stránkách The Journal of Experimental Biology