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Grey Matter Leonardo da Vinci: a genius driven to distraction (Did Leonardo da Vinci have ADHD?)

Zdroj: časopis BRAIN - A JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Volume 142, Issue 6, June 2019; Marco Catani, Paolo Mazzarello

The story of Da Vinci is one of a paradox—a great mind that has compassed the wonders of anatomy, natural philosophy and art, but also failed to complete so many projects (Freud, 1922; Kemp, 2006). The excessive time dedicated to idea planning and the lack of perseverance seems to have been particularly detrimental to finalize tasks that at first had attracted his enthusiasm. Leonardo’s chronic struggle to distill his extraordinary creativity into concrete results and deliver on commitments was proverbial in his lifetime and present since early childhood...

Plné znění článku na stránkách časopisu BRAIN ZDE

 

When does clean eating become an unhealthy obsession?

Zdroj: York University, May 14, 2019

New findings on who is at risk for orthorexia nervosa.
Researchers say those who have a history of an eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive traits, dieting, poor body image, and a drive for thinness are more likely to develop a pathological obsession with healthy eating or consuming only healthy food, known as orthorexia nervosa (ON). Although eating healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, for some people this preoccupation with healthy eating can become physically and socially impairing...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Substance Use + Mental Health in Teens and Young Adults - Your Guide to Recognizing and Addressing Co-occurring Disorders

Zdroj: Drugfree.org

This guide, a collaboration of the Child Mind Institute and Center on Addiction, which merged with Partnership for Drug-Free Kids in January 2019, provides information on common mental health disorders in young people (and the medications that are often used to treat these), tips on identifying substance misuse and steps to making informed decisions about evaluation and treatment for co-occurring disorders.

Plné znění příručky na stránkách Drugfree.org ZDE

 

Drug prevention: exploring a systems perspective

EMCDDA, Lisbon, March 2019

This report considers substance use prevention in Europe through the lens of a system, highlighting the wide range of factors that need to be addressed to successfully implement substance use prevention programmes and policies. They are considered from different viewpoints by practitioners, policymakers and researchers. Systems thinking may have the potential to unify these differing perspectives within a single model.

Plné znění zprávy na stránkách EMCDDA ZDE

 

Discipline in the Light of Alternative Ways of Educating Learners

Bogusław Śliwerski, University of Łódź

The article presents an analysis of the concept of discipline in alternative schools throughout the world. The issue of school discipline has given rise to a dispute within the βield of pedagogy about the place and role of discipline in school education, as there are many misunderstandings, contradictions, and myths surrounding this issue. In bringing up this topic, the matter is often dealt with in a fragmentary or one-sided way, depending on who is a representative of a particular ideology of education, i.e., whether or not he or she is a supporter or an opponent of disciplining students in the school...

Plné znění článku na stránkách vědeckého časopisu Pedagogická orientace č. 4/2018 ZDE

 

Perfectionism in Children: Top 8 Strategies

Quirky Kid Clinic, Leonardo Rocker (Quirky Kid Staff)

Perfectionism, characterised by the setting very high, even impossible, standards for oneself and becoming self-critical if these standards are not reached, is a common feature of many of the children we see at our clinic. While it is well established that many children can manage perfectionistic characteristics adaptively to help them stay motivated, organised and on task to meet high personal standards, perfectionism can also lead to high levels of avoidance, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem and exaggerated reactions to mistakes, all of which can interfere with a child’s functioning...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Childpsychologist.com.au ZDE

 

Can mass media campaigns prevent young people from using drugs?

EMCDDA; Lisbon

The use of mass media campaigns in drug prevention is both relatively common and not without controversy. Both policymakers and practitioners have hotly debated the effectiveness of such campaigns to reduce young people’s drug use or their intention to use. This analysis aims to contribute to the debate via a review of available evidence on the topic...

Plné znění článku na stránkách EMCDDA ZDE

 

Reitox academy: professionalising the prevention workforce through standardised training

EMCDDA; Lisbon, 28.11.2018

Over 50 representatives of the Reitox national focal points (NFPs) and decision-makers from more than 20 countries will gather in Prague this week for a Reitox academy on the theme of prevention. The two-day course will centre on the European adaptation of the Universal Prevention Curriculum (UPC), taken forward by the European Commission-funded Universal Prevention Curriculum in Europe project (UPC-ADAPT).
The Reitox academy is organised by the EMCDDA and the UPC-Adapt Group in collaboration with the 1st Faculty of Medicine at the Charles University in Prague and the Czech National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction. The event takes place within the final conference of the UPC-Adapt project, supported by the European Commission.

Plné znění článku na stránkách EMCDDA ZDE

 

Exergaming can improve executive function in children with ADHD

Psypost.org; By Eric W. Dolan; August 30, 2018

A new study has found evidence that playing video games that involve physical exertion (exergaming) can improve executive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The findings appear in the journal Scientific Reports.
“On the one hand, children with ADHD frequently have difficulties in being attentive for a long period of time. This has an impact on their daily lives regarding school performance, for example,” said study author Valentin Benzing of the Institute of Sport Science at the University of Bern.
“On the other hand, children with ADHD enjoy playing video games. They like the immediate reward, and spend a lot of time playing. Since we know from previous studies that physical exercise has a positive impact on executive functions, the idea was to combine both — video games and exercise — and to investigate whether it could have a positive impact on cognition.”...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Psypost.org ZDE

 

How parenting affects antisocial behaviors in children

Source: University of Pennsylvania; October 11, 2018

Less parental warmth and more harshness in the home environment affect how aggressive children become and whether they lack empathy and a moral compass, a set of characteristics known as callous-unemotional (CU) traits, according to findings from the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Michigan, and Michigan State University. The work was published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily  ZDE

 

Depressed children 6 times more likely to have skill deficits

Source: University of Missouri-Columbia; August 29, 2018

The Anxiety and Depression Association of America reports that as many as 2 to 3 percent of children ages 6-12 might have major depressive disorder. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have found that children who show mild to severe symptoms of depression in second and third grades are six times more likely to have skill deficits, such as difficulties with social skills or academics, than children without symptoms. Parents and teachers also had difficulties recognizing depression in children...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Further support for genetic factors underlying addictions

Source: Boston University Medical Center

Impairment of a particular gene raises increases susceptibility to opioid addiction liability as well as vulnerability to binge eating according to a new study. Dysfunction of the gene, casein kinase1-epsilon (CSNK1E), increases opioid's euphoric response and produces a marked increase in sensitivity to binge eating in a female experimental model but not in the male...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Caring for a child with ADHD: 21 tips

Medicalnewstoday.com; By Jamie Crawford; Wed 25 April 2018

Bringing up a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD comes with its own challenges. There are no hard and fast rules, as ADHD can have different degrees of severity and symptoms. However, children can benefit from person-centered or tailor-made approaches.

Plné znění článku na Medicalnewstoday.com ZDE

 

Drug Prevention Tips for Every Age

Drugfree.org

Conversations are one of the most powerful tools parents can use to connect with — and protect — their kids. But, when tackling some of life’s tougher topics, especially those about drugs and alcohol, just figuring out what to say can be a challenge. We’ve provided scenarios and scripts below on what to say to your child, no matter their age...

Plné znění na stránkách drugfree.org ZDE

 

A Review of Prevention Programmes from a Gender Perspective

University of the Balearic Islands, publikováno v odborném časopisu Adiktologie č.3/2017  (anglicky)

Failure to address gender has often led to its invisibility in prevention. This paper explores evidence on the effectiveness of prevention programmes for girls that can offer practitioners and researchers an insight into why girls and boys respond differently to prevention, based on a review of school and community-based prevention programmes with results broken down by gender, listed in the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices and in the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (UNDOC, 2016)...

Plné znění na stránkách časopisu Adiktologie ZDE

 

Apps to keep children safe online may be counterproductive

ScienceDaily, April 3, 2018

Mobile apps designed to help parents keep their children safe from online predators may actually be counterproductive, harming the trust between a parent and child and reducing the child's ability to respond to online threats, conclude two new studies...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Bullying based on stigma has especially damaging effects

ScienceDaily, March 8, 2018

Study examines strategies used to help victims targeted based on race, sexual orientation or other characteristic.
In a new study, two professors are looking at bullying based on stigma -- where one is treated unfairly or unjustly due to one's race, sexual orientation, gender, or other characteristic -- and examining the methods used to prevent this type of bullying and address it when it happens...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Drug testing in schools

EMCDDA, Lisbon, November 2017

Although rare, drug testing in schools continues to be practised in some European countries, where it is seen as a deterrent to use. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of random testing in schools, based on studies conducted among students aged 13 to 19 years, in the United States. Although different with regard to study design and the type of testing offered, all of the studies show that testing has little or no effect on drug use...

Plné znění článku na stránkách EMCDDA ZDE

 

Preventing Teen Drug Use: Risk Factors & Why Teens Use

Drugfree.org
Ninety percent of addictions start in the teen years. Don’t ignore risk factors and assume your child will be okay, or simply ignore a problem because you think it’s just a passing stage of development. If something appears wrong, start taking action...

Plné znění článku na stránkách drugfree.org ZDE

 

A new study tries to unpick what makes people happy and sad. Mental illness is a better predictor of misery than poverty is.

The Economist; 2017

KEEPING voters happy is the lifeblood of any ambitious politician’s career. So they may want to pay attention to a report, released to mark “World Happiness Day” on March 20th, from the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, a UN body, and the Ernesto Illy Foundation, a non-profit. In addition to the usual rankings of countries from the happiest (Norway, for the usual reasons) to the least (Central African Republic, close to a failed state), the study also tries to unpick what makes people gleeful and—more unusually—what makes them miserable. Reducing suffering, the authors argue, may be more important than boosting pleasure, because improving the life of an already-happy person probably yields a smaller gain in total welfare than freeing someone from misery does. They analysed large-scale surveys from four countries—Britain, Australia, America, Indonesia—to identify which factors are most closely associated with the population of the least happy decile of the sample.

Plné znění článku na stránkách The Economist ZDE

 

Principles of Substance Abuse Prevention for Early Childhood-A Research Based Guide
NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse, USA); 2016

Substance abuse and addiction are preventable disorders that interfere with normal healthy functioning, contributing to physical and behavioral health problems, injuries, lost income and productivity, and family dysfunction. While substance use generally begins during the adolescent years, there are known biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors that contribute to the risk that begin accumulating as early as the prenatal period. This creates opportunities to intervene very early in an individual’s life and thereby prevent substance use disorders—and, along with them, a range of other related behavioral problems—long before they would normally manifest themselves...

Plné znění článku na stránkách NIDA ZDE

 

Cyberbullying rarely occurs in isolation, research finds

ScienceDaily, March 7, 2017

Cyberbullying doesn’t create large numbers of new victims, say researchers. Most bullying is face-to-face – with cyberbullying used as a modern tool to supplement traditional forms. A new study has found that 29% of UK teenagers reported being bullied, but only 1% were victims of cyberbullying alone. Therefore, say authors of a new report, bullying intervention strategies should focus on traditional bullying as well as cyberbullying...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Tips for Talking and What to Say to Prevent Medicine Abuse

Drugfree.org - Talk with Your Kids

Kids who learn about the dangers of drug use early and often are much less likely to develop addiction than those who do not receive these critical messages at home. However, research shows these conversations tend not to include the topic of medicine abuse. According to a national study, only 14 percent of teens indicated that during the last conversation they had with their parents regarding substance use, the misuse or abuse of any type of prescription drug was discussed...

Plné znění článku + Parent Talk Kit ke stažení na stránkách Drugfree.org ZDE

 

Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity.

ScienceDaily, 25 April 2017

Source: Society for Research in Child Development
Emotional eating is not uncommon in children and adolescents, but why youth eat emotionally has been unclear. Now a new longitudinal study from Norway has found that school-age children whose parents fed them more to soothe their negative feelings were more likely to eat emotionally later on. The reverse was also found to be the case, with parents of children who were more easily soothed by food being more likely to feed them for emotional reasons...

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Brain differences in ADHD

ScienceDaily, 16 February 2017

Source: Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
Summary: Largest imaging study of ADHD to date identifies differences in five regions of the brain, with greatest differences seen in children rather than adults.

Plné znění článku na stránkách ScienceDaily ZDE

 

Link Between Alcohol Marketing and Youth Drinking Grows Stronger

Drugfree.org by Celia Vimont, January 19th, 2017

A new review of studies from around the world finds young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking.The researchers reviewed 12 studies involving a total of more than 35,000 participants from Europe, Asia and North America. All 12 found evidence of a positive association between level of marketing exposure and level of youth alcohol consumption...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Drugfree.org ZDE

 

Research on Substance Abuse and Bullying Yields Some Surprising Findings

Drugfree.org by Celia Vimont, October 13th, 2016

Researchers looking at the relationship between bullying and substance use in teens are coming up with some surprising findings. This is especially true in the area of bullying victimization and substance use, according to Amanda Nickerson, PhD, Professor and Director of the Alberti Center for Bullying Abuse Prevention, Graduate School of Education at the University of Buffalo in New York.
“A fair amount of research has found higher rates of substance use among bullying perpetrators,” says Dr. Nickerson, who spoke about bullying and substance use at the recent National Prevention Network annual research conference. “Substance use may be one part of a cluster of problem behaviors, as well as aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, among bullying perpetrators.”...

Plné znění článku na stránkách Drugfree.org ZDE

 

"Everyone’s not doing it" message offers hope for prevention
Drug and Alcohol Findings; 28 June 2016

Science is littered with shining discoveries which became tarnished as accumulating data forced a reappraisal. In substance misuse, ‘normative education’ retains some of its shine, but what seemed the great hope for school- and college-based prevention now seems a tactic of limited application and inconsistent impact. The approach relies on the common (but perhaps at not as common as believed below) overestimation by pupils and students of how many of their peers use substances and how much they use, and/or a similar overestimation of the acceptability of substance use among their peers. Corrective survey data is expected to reduce substance use because it no longer seems ‘normal’ and ‘what everyone my age does’. For more on the thinking and research behind this strategy, see this presentation from John McAlaney of the University of Bradford...
Plné znění článku na stánkách Findings.org.uk  ZDE

 

Prevention of addictive behaviours

EMCDDA, Lisbon, September 2015

This publication is an update of Prevention of substance abuse, published in 2007. Like the previous analysis, it is a translation of a German study that presents a state-of-the-art review of prevention science. Although originally targeted at the German audience, the evidence base addressed is global in its scope. The review is broad in its considerations, covering not only the main topic of drug abuse but also alcohol and tobacco, as well as behavioural addictions, such as gambling.

Plné znění publikace na stránkách EMCDDA ZDE

 

Physical activity, sadness, and suicidality in bullied US adolescents
Medical news today; Published: Friday 18 September 2015
A study to be published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) reports that exercise for 4 or more days per week is associated with an approximate 23% reduction in both suicidal ideation and attempt in bullied adolescents in the U.S.
Across the U.S., nearly 20% of students report being bullied on school property. Bullying is associated with academic struggle, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and self-harm. Exercise has been widely reported to have robust positive effects on mental health including reduction in depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.
Using data from a nationally representative sample of youth who participated in the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (CDC), a group of researchers led by Dr. Jeremy Sibold of the University of Vermont, examined the relationship between exercise frequency, sadness, and suicidal ideation and attempt in 13,583 U.S. adolescents in grades 9-12. The authors hypothesized that exercise frequency would be inversely related to sadness and suicidality and that these benefits would extend to bullying victims...
Více na www.medicalnewstoday.com

 

Parents' rules about underage drinking: A qualitative study of why parents let teens drink

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), Prevention Research Center (Bettina Friese, Ph.D., Joel W. Grube, Ph.D., Roland S. Moore, Ph.D., and Vanessa K. Jennings, B.A.) 

Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink...

Více na www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

 

Why Do Teens Act This Way?

By Join Together Staff

Have ever looked at your teenager and wondered: “Why does my teen do that?”
From mood swings to risk taking, “normal teenage behavior” can appear to be anything-but-normal to parents and other bystanders. However, new research reveals that patterns of brain development during these formative years play a significant role in shaping your teen’s personality and actions.
Scientists are beginning to learn that it takes a brain about 25 years to fully develop, and that a huge burst of development happens during adolescence...

Článek + video na stránkách Drugfree.org